Staging means how big the cancer is and whether it has spread. There are different systems used in the UK to stage breast cancer. The most common one is the TNM system.
Working out how far the cancer has spread is called staging. Stages of breast cancer are numbered from 1—4. Early cancers are classified in the stages below:.
Tumor grade is the description of a tumor based on how abnormal the tumor cells and the tumor tissue look under a microscope. It is an indicator of how quickly a tumor is likely to grow and spread. The factors used to determine tumor grade can vary between different types of cancer.
Readers are referred to the calibration table in the UK breast screening guidelines 2. A minimum a 10 hpfs should be counted at the periphery of the lesion and an attempt made to seek out mitoses. The illustrations below show examples of what are and more importantly what are not mitoses.
Breast cancer survival rates and prognosis are determined by so many different factors that it is always difficult to make generalizations. NOTE : this page has been recently updated with the most up-to-date statistics. Prognosis has improved so much because breast cancer treatments have become more effective since this page was first created.
Cancer cells are given a grade when they are removed from the breast and checked under a microscope. The grade is based on how much the cancer cells look like normal cells. A lower grade number 1 usually means the cancer is slower-growing and less likely to spread.
Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes. As knowledge of cancer cell biology develops these classifications are updated.
In this paper we address the problem of automated grading of invasive breast carcinoma through the encoding of histological images as VLAD Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors representations on the Grassmann manifold. The proposed method considers each image as a set of multidimensional spatially-evolving signals that can be efficiently modeled through a higher-order linear dynamical systems analysis. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed methodology, two datasets with different characteristics were used. More specifically, we created a new medium-sized dataset consisting of annotated images collected from 21 patients of grades 1, 2 and 3, while we also provide experimental results using a large dataset, namely BreaKHis, containing 7, breast cancer histological images, collected from 82 patients, of both benign and malignant cases.
The stage of a cancer tells you how big it is and whether it has spread. The type tells which type of cell the cancer started from and the grade means how abnormal the cells look under the microscope. These include:.